10 natural disasters that made the world more beautiful
Yellowstone National Park is considered the best national park in America. Santorini (Greece) is one of the places that should be visited before death, and is a place for a honeymoon and a fabulous vacation. African safari can show more than you can see in one tour. However, these places are united not only by their unusual beauty. The stories of their formation range from unexpected to tragic, and each of these places can link its creation with a well-known natural cataclysm.
1. Cenucotes of Yucatan and asteroid Chicxulub
The numerous cenotes (funnels) that dot the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico are unique. Their turquoise water is under caverns lit by daylight. Lush plants grow along their high walls under azure skies. However, the real magic takes place in the water under the lime funnels.
The cenotes of the Yucatan Peninsula are mixed aquifers. This means that 10 meters below the top layer of clean groundwater is another layer of salt water. These two layers do not mix, and for most of the year they remain crystal clear. The cenotes were a source of drinking water for the Maya during dry periods. They also played an important role in the spiritual culture of the Maya. In the cenote of Chichen Itza, many artifacts have been discovered that were sacrificed to a well. The sight of one of these cenotes easily explains why the Mayans worshiped their gods in such a place.
It is easy to concentrate on the holiday, which could be enjoyed in such a beautiful place. However, the Yucatan cenotes not only allow us to see the life of the Maya who lived next to them out of the corner of their eyes. They outline the impact crater of the asteroid Chicxulub. This is an asteroid with which we associate mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous. The Sentoi Yucatan are located along the edge of the impact crater. This ring gives us an idea of the possible size of the asteroid at the moment of impact; 240 kilometers across.
2. Niagara Falls and the Ice Age
Niagara Escarpment is well known for the huge masses of water that flow through it. In New York and Ontario (Canada), the Niagara River falls from a height of about 34 meters into the bottom pools. Every minute, over 170,000 cubic meters of water falls across the crest of the waterfall. This powerful waterfall provides a stunning backdrop for both vacations and weddings in an exotic location.
Creating Niagara Falls took much longer than the fall of an asteroid on the planet. The Pleistocene, which formed these and many other places, was a long-term natural phenomenon. For most people, the Pleistocene is known for its more common name - the era of great glaciation. At this time, most of the world megafauna, including mastodons and woolly mammoths, died out.
Along with the extinction, there were big changes in the global landscape. One of these was the formation of Niagara Falls. The water that feeds the waterfall came from the last northwestern refuge of the glaciers that covered southern Ontario with a layer of ice from two to three kilometers thick.
3. Crater Lake
Beautiful Crater Lake is located in the southwestern forests of Oregon.Pristine, blue waters, lush green pines and the pensive magic of Pumice Castle and Sorcerer Island. There is something appealing in Lake Crater. It asks you to spend a few nights at the campground of Crater Lake National Park. If you're lucky, you can even see the Old Man from the lake. An old man is called the trunk of an ancient hemlock, who managed to swim in an upright position for over 100 years. Under the whitened sun, a lot of traveled log is a crater with a maximum depth of 592 meters. Crater Lake is a combination of beauty and mystery that you do not want to miss.
There is no secret in the formation of the lake itself. The top of an ancient volcano collapsed during an eruption. It took 250 years to fill the caldera with rainwater. Approximately 7,700 years ago, the height of the volcano called Mount Mazama exceeded 3,600 meters. The eruption reached a height of 20 kilometers, and a cloud of ash and fragments of lava, called pyroclasts, reached central Canada. Ashes from the blast can be found in Greenland.
4. Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park is located almost 13 hundred kilometers from Crater Lake.The park is a unique combination of flora, fauna and fountains that spew water emitting steam into the sky. Yellowstone is well known for the Old Faithful geyser, which can be regularly discharged to 56 meters. Other rare sights include Yellowstone Sand Verbena and Yellowstone Sulfur Wild Buckwheat. They are endemic for this area, that is, they can be found only in the park. Here you can often find bison, moose, wolves and bears, spending only a few hours in this beautiful landscape.
However, Yellowstone has a dangerous story. Many are aware of the possibility of the eruption of Supervolcano Yellowstone in the future. But few are aware of the three big blasts that shook this place before it became a national park.
More than two million years ago, three powerful eruptions occurred on the territory of the modern park. The force of these explosions was about 6,000 times greater than the force of the eruption of St. Helena in 1980. The resulting caldera, plants and animals today form a large part of the park.
5. Ngorongoro Crater
Ngorongoro Crater is located near the more famous Serengeti Plains. This is the sixth largest caldera in the world. In this crater you can find elephants, zebras and black rhinos. Cheetahs and lions also roam the crater, along with 500 famous bird species. Vegetation ranges from bamboo to low grasses and endemic trees. There are even rainforests near the edge of the crater. However, wildlife and vegetation is not the only thing that can be seen when visiting the crater.
The Masai indigenous people and their livestock live here in harmony with the local wildlife. The nearby Olmotí crater offers amazing waterfalls. In Empakai, another crater of the park, is a deep lake surrounded by walls of lush, green vegetation. There is no end to the attractions offered today by Ngorongoro National Park.
Three million years ago, Ngorongoro Crater was a large volcano that towered above the ground. The height of the volcano ranged from 4,500 to 5,800 meters, which is almost equal to the height of the nearby volcano Kilimanjaro.
The caldera has a depth of 610 meters, and its base area is 260 square kilometers.The eruption of this volcano, in all likelihood, was a great natural disaster, which destroyed everything in its path. Today, its result is a place of incredible beauty.
6. Okavango Delta
At the thought of the Kalahari Desert, you probably feel the orange sand and the burning sun. However, there is an inland delta in the lower part of the Okavango River. The Okavango Delta is a unique world heritage site whose waters do not pour out into the ocean, as in most deltas. Instead, she turned the Kalahari into a permanent swamp.
Against the backdrop of crystal clear blue waters, a huge ecosystem of plant and animal life thrives there. African elephants, zebras, hippos and several other animal species inhabit the delta. The annual flood from Angola enlivens the rest of the dry desert background even more. We should not miss such an adventure as a safari in the Okavango Delta.
However, we could have missed it if it were not for the earthquake that led to the formation of the East African Rift. Previously, the Okavango River behaved like all other rivers; it flowed to the ocean through great lakes.Then the formation of the Nubian and Somali plates began. As a result, faults and earthquakes interrupted the flow of the river, and it spilled out into the desert and formed there a magnificent landscape.
7. Lava tube Udara
When planning a trip to Australia, the thought of the Great Barrier Reef may come to mind. The cities of Sydney and Brisbane can also be your final destination. However, the 3.5-hour drive from Cairns is a system of lava tubes that you don’t want to miss. Udara is the native word, which translates as “the long way,” and is the appropriate name for one of the longest lava pipes on the planet.
The tubes stretch for about 32 kilometers. This is a long hike, but it is worth the time spent. In the tubes are caves with the largest biological diversity in the world. Collapsed cavern ceilings allow sunlight to penetrate to the plants and animals that live there. This includes four species of bats and an ordinary kangaroo. In the caves are also growing thickets of semi-evergreen vines. Creepers originate from the division of the ancient supercontinent Gondwana. These are some old creepers.
The formation of a lava tube is a specific natural cataclysm - a large volcanic eruption, which produced 23.3 cubic kilometers of lava. The flow (of lava) moved at a speed of about 1000 cubic meters per second and traveled more than 160 kilometers, absorbing everything in its path. The lava tubes of the Udar were formed when the lava gushed into the dry bed of the river and the upper layer hardened. Inside the tube, the lava moved for many kilometers until it was exhausted. After it left a system of tubes, which we can see today.
8. Ujung Pendant - Krakatau
As for the rare sights, among them are the Javan rhinos. Only 60 of these rhinos are left; they are an endangered species that can only be found in Ujung Kulon National Park. In this Indonesian park also grow 57 rare plants. The park, which is among the World Heritage sites, offers an exciting journey on the beaches with soft sand and snorkeling. Tropical mountains and several islands may also attract attention.
The main attraction of Ujung Kulon is the currently inactive Krakatau volcano.This volcano is well known for its strong eruption in 1883. During this eruption, 36,000 people died, and the noise they produced was heard at a distance of 4,800 kilometers. It was the loudest sound recorded on the planet. The ash cloud that formed during the eruption covered the sun for several days. The result of this disaster was the numerous human casualties and destruction on the nearby islands. However, it also resulted in the emergence of lush green tropical forests and pristine pure natural ecosystems.
9. Messina peak of Mediterranean salinity
Turquoise water, warm winter and sunny summer. White sand beaches and whitewashed walls. Cities built on rocky cliffs towering over the ocean. This imaginative series is the most typical example of rest. This is the place you dream about, talking about your hopes of traveling around the world and seeing the sights. This is the Mediterranean Sea. The peoples who prosper on the islands there have given us a unique cuisine and history. Rome, Greece, Sicily and Carthage - they all fought for control over it for many years.This 3900 km long sea played an important role in their ups and downs. It also provided trade between Europe and Asia.
However, there was once a risk that all modern cultures and civilizations would never arise. Beautiful islands, coastlines and calderas could never appear. If it were not for the Zankliysky flood, the Mediterranean Sea would still remain a desert, as it was 5.6 million years ago.
Having lost communication with the oceans, the Mediterranean Sea lost 4 kilometers of water. Presumably over 800,000 years, the Mediterranean Sea remained mostly dry. Then, about 5.33 million years ago, there was a rapid filling of the sea. The very same Strait of Gibraltar that blocked the ocean reopened. Approximately 90% of the Mediterranean basin was filled in two years, with a water lift rate of 10 meters per day. The islands of today, the resting places of dreams, are back in connection with a severe flood.
10. Galveston Hurricane of 1900
With a coastline of at least fifty kilometers and offering all kinds of recreation for different people, Galveston Island (Texas, USA) is a place that provides comfortable rest. Since it is only 50 minutes from Houston, you can get there by car.In the city you will find a lot of shops, attractions and walks. Beaches, swimming with dolphins and horseback riding will draw you to the natural side of this island city.
Galveston was not always a sunny, happy city like today. It is known as the site of the homonymous hurricane that broke out there in 1900. A fourth category storm raged over the island with wind force up to 225 kilometers per hour. As a result of the hurricane, more than 6,000 of the 37,000 inhabitants of the island died and more than 3,500 buildings disappeared from the face of the earth.
Some call it the worst natural disaster in US history. The only obvious thing is that this hurricane was a tragedy. However, today you can still go to Galveston, sit on the shore and look at the sea, which is now much calmer. You can hear the laughter of local children and see the city proudly flaunting.
These natural disasters tore the earth apart. They punched holes in the ground and took countless lives. However, the Earth and the animals and people living on it are resistant. After each tragedy, we will recover and restore the destroyed. Destructions will be forgotten, giving way to a beautiful world.