British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

Arkhangelsk - Karelia. Colonial interventionist policy. 1918 - 1920

The end of the civil war in Finland in early May 1918 with the victory of the White Guards sharply increased the danger of their march, with the support of the Germans in the northern regions of Russia. The further, the more difficult the Bolshevik government was to maneuver between the opposing countries and the blocs. 06/03/1918 The Supreme Council of the Entente approved the memorandum "Allied intervention in Russian allied ports." The United Kingdom, which considered the Russian North as its “sphere of influence,” achieved the approval of the English General, FK Pull, by the commander-in-chief of the expeditionary forces. Intervention was considered anti-German, but in fact it was anti-Soviet in nature, because was to be carried out against the will of the Soviet government, which demanded the withdrawal of foreign troops from Soviet territory (notes of protest of June 6 and 14, 1918).

Under the flag of so-called friendly economic assistance, the region was flooded with a large army of Anglo-American merchants and speculators. Military speculators have established monopolies for more valuable raw materials: furs, ornamental bone, whalebone, flax, tow, etc. Buying up for nothing from the population, the invaders sent an endless stream of goods abroad.

Having captured Arkhangelsk, the interventionists began to operate in the occupied part of the region, as in their colony. From the very first days, they introduced a military dictatorship, declared martial law in the city, imposed censorship on all printed publications, including the official body of the government - the Bulletin of the Northern Region High Administration.

The invaders carried out the colonial-imperialist policy with the hands of the White Guards and, above all, with the hands of the Supreme Directorate. All orders of the Anglo-American generals by the White Guard government were executed immediately. So, under their influence the Council of Trade Unions was liquidated, the former tsarist administration was reinstated, the courts of the Stolypin type were introduced. The law of God became an obligatory subject for schools.

The interventionists tried to keep the white army in their hands. There was no independent Russian White Guard army on the Northern Front. She was entirely subordinate to the interventionist command, the Anglo-American and French generals and officers. All the supply of military units of the Russian Whites was based on complete dependence on the British and Americans. Orders of the White Guard officers were amended and canceled by the interventionist officers. The officers did not hesitate to cancel the orders and orders of the superior Russian White Guard commanders.

In England, special banknotes were printed for the occupied North, the so-called northern rubles. They were guaranteed by the English bank and put the area in complete financial dependence.

The Anglo-American occupation led to a complete decline in production in all sectors of the economy of the Northern Region. The entire timber industry of the North was paralyzed; forestry, hunting, fishing and marine animals have come to a complete decline. Having seized and hijacked fishing and ice-breaking vessels, the interventionists deprived the fishermen and hunters of their only source of livelihood and condemned the Northerners to starvation.

Constant requisitions of livestock, horses, fodder, bread, meat, and oil led to a sharp decline in agriculture. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and Mensheviks, who welcomed the interventionists at the beginning, were forced to admit the disastrous consequences of colonial robbery. In January 1920, the city assembly of Arkhangelsk described the economic situation of the region as follows: “The trades ... fell or ceased, industrial life stopped ... The food issue was in a terrible condition ... The seeds were eaten ... there is no public education, because the schools are occupied by the military department or destroyed ..." 1
During the occupation period, the losses caused by the interventionists to the national economy of the North exceeded one billion rubles in gold.

The policy of colonial robbery was accompanied by terror and repression. The Anglo-American invaders resurrected the darkest times of royal reaction in the memory of the people. In the convict prisons, in the dungeons of the Archangel Prison, the interventionists widely used iron shackles.

In the captured counties county prisons were opened.

There were so many of those arrested in Arkhangelsk that the prisons could not accommodate them. In addition to the provincial central prison, they were occupied by the basements of the customs, the hold of the steamer Vologzhanin, the prisons were built in Kegostrov, on the Bull, on Bakaritsa.

Particularly gloomy fame acquired hard labor prisons on the island of Mudyug and in the bay of Iokanga.

"The concept of Mudyug is inextricably linked with the concept of supreme suffering, of the highest human cruelty and inevitable painful death ... Whoever came to Mudyug is a living corpse, he will not return to life ..."

In late June - early July, clashes began between the troops of the Entente and the Soviet troops on Murman, which resulted in a direct military confrontation. The interventionist forces advanced to Kandalaksha, and on the 7/27/1918 captured Kem. The intervention, launched under the anti-German banner, has evolved from a military-strategic action, driven by the needs of world war, into a political, anti-Bolshevik one.

On July 2-3, 1918, the Supreme Council of the Entente decided to expand the intervention in the North and in Siberia. This decision was supported by the American President in a memorandum ("Aide-memoir") of his administration (07/17/1918). Diplomatic support for the Intervention was provided by members of the diplomatic corps of the Entente, who was in Vologda at the end of February - March (including the US Ambassador D. R. Francis, the French Ambassador J. Noulance and others).Diplomats left Vologda on July 25, 1918, they spent 3 days in transit in Arkhangelsk and finally arrived in Kandalaksha. Here they informed the military leadership of the interventionists about the anti-Soviet uprising that was being prepared in Arkhangelsk and achieved an urgent dispatch to the Allied squadron there. 08/09/1918 diplomats arrived in Arkhangelsk, already in the hands of the interventionists. Subsequently, the diplomatic corps played an important role in the events taking place here. The Allied invasion of the northern districts of the Arkhangelsk province meant a qualitatively new stage of intervention, a sharp expansion of its scale. In the hands of the invaders focused leadership in all key areas of life of the newly formed Northern region.

From October 14 (officially - from November 19th), the British Allied General Commander became Allied Commander. Ironside British, French, American, Italian soldiers and officers took part in all the major battles on the Northern Front. If at the start of hostilities in the Arkhangelsk area about 1.5 thousand invaders took part in them, in the middle of February 1919 the Arkhangelsk group of former allies consisted of 12,905 peoplewhereas in the units of the white army there were only 3325 people. In the Murmansk area in February 1919 there were 9,750 foreign soldiers and officers, and 6,450 White Guards. In both directions (Arkhangelsk and Murmansk) they were opposed by Soviet troops numbering from 15 to 18 thousand people. The attack on Kotlas (Kotlas, or the North Dvina direction) was stopped by the heroic efforts of the Red Army, and on 10/5/1918, General Puhl was forced to inform the British War Department that he had postponed the advance to Kotlas until spring. 09/17/1918 US troops entered Shenkursk; as a result, the so-called Vazhsky (Shenkursky) “protrusion” was formed, liquidated by the Red Army during the Shenkur operation on January 19-25, 1919. In August-October 1918, stubborn fighting broke out along the Arkhangelsk-Vologda railway (railway direction); the main purpose of which was to master the station Plesetskaya.

The cessation of World War I (11/11/1918) was an important milestone in the history of the Intervention, since, according to Churchill, “all the arguments that led to the intervention disappeared”. The crisis of the intervention strategy was marked, it needed a new rationale, which was not possible.The Allied Command was extremely concerned about the demoralization of its soldiers, which was intensified under the influence of skillfully organized propaganda of the Bolsheviks. 03/22/1919 British soldiers transferred from Murman refused to take up combat positions from Kodysh; pacify the rebellion came Ironside itself. On 1.03.1919, the French soldiers, who were on short rest in Arkhangelsk, refused to return to the trenches. A mass movement against military intervention unfolded in Britain; March 4, 1919 the military office was forced to decide on the withdrawal of British troops from the North of Russia. Even earlier (February 24), the President of the United States came to the same decision. However, military operations on the fronts continued. In March-April 1919, units of the 8th and 4th Northern Regiments, along with British and American units, conducted offensive battles on the Pinega River. The cast of the British and White Guards from Ust-Pinega to Karpogora ended in failure. 27.05. and 06/10/1919 2 brigades of British volunteers arrived in Arkhangelsk. On June 20, the British and White Guards, with the support of the flotilla and aviation, attacked the Soviet positions on the Northern Dvina, which was to be the prologue of the main attack on Kotlas.Another British brigade and detachments of the White Guards intended to strike at Pinezhsky, Vazhskom and railway directions. But these plans were thwarted by the uprisings in the White Guard units (July 1919) and the active resistance of the Red Army units. Meanwhile, the evacuation of the Allied troops began in September - October 1919.

The operation to liberate the North continued, and with each passing day it took on new dimensions. September 6, 1919 Red Army regiments went on the offensive. As a result, the enemy left Ust-Vaga, was released Dvinskaya Bereznik. Enemy troops began to quickly retreat down the Northern Dvina. February 3, 1920 the offensive became decisive. On February 11, the station Plesetskaya was liberated, after 8 days - Obozerskaya. Panics broke out among the White Guards, the front of the Whites collapsed. On February 18, Miller, with his headquarters, plunged onto the Minin icebreaker and fled abroad.

On February 21, 1920, the Red Army troops, after nineteen months of hard struggle with the interventionists and the White Guards, entered Arkhangelsk. The population greeted them enthusiastically with bread and salt. The liberation of Arkhangelsk was a signal for an uprising in Murmansk.On February 21, railroad workers, port workers, fishermen under the leadership of the underground Bolshevik organization seized the city. The transfer into the hands of the Soviet authorities of Arkhangelsk and Murmansk marked the final liberation of the North from the White Guard troops and interventionists.

A bloody and devastating whirlwind passed through a civil war over the northern land. Reflecting on the results and lessons of the anti-Bolshevik struggle in the Russian North, it should be recognized that without armed intervention from outside it would hardly have resulted in a form of civil war.

The genesis of union intervention in northern Russia took place in a unique international context. Here the interests of the warring coalitions and individual countries clashed irreconcilably. The policy of the Entente countries in the preparation of intervention was guided primarily by military-strategic considerations, the desire to return Russia to world war, using the northern edge and its seaports as a springboard for restoring the Eastern Front. With the end of the World War, the allied intervention acquired an unambiguously anti-Bolshevik character. The military-strategic motives have lost their significance, and political, ideological, and economic factors have come to the fore.

In the emerging alliance of the interventionists of the Entente and the opponents of Bolshevism, the former played the main role. It was they who ensured the arrival of anti-Soviet forces to power, and only their help ensured the existence of the regime. But the paradox was precisely the fact that the alliance with the interventionists deprived the opponents of Bolshevism among the masses, and the power of the Soviets rallying the lower classes under the banner of the defense of the fatherland.

The reasons for the defeat of the White Army in general in Russia, and in the North in particular, are sufficiently analyzed by researchers. First, the limited economic and human resources of the outskirts of Russia. Secondly, the Allies behaved as invaders, interventionists, pursued a colonial, aggressive, predatory policy. From here, the Red Army waged a war of liberation meeting the national interests of Russia. Thirdly: the policy of the White movement is a policy of non-determination. The solution of the vital problems of the majority of the population was postponed until the convocation of the Constituent Assembly after the complete victory over the Bolsheviks. The slogans of the Bolsheviks were understood by the majority of the population. And their implementation in practice led to the fact that in February 1920, during the anti-White Guard uprisings, almost the 50 thousandth White Army went over to the side of the Red Army.Fourth: the absence of a single strong leader among the anti-Soviet forces. Conversely, the Soviet Republic had a recognized single leader - V.I. Ulyanova-Lenin. Moreover, the military leadership was strictly subordinate to the political leadership. Among the reasons for the defeat of the White Army in the North, it should be noted that, together with the broad masses of the people, a significant part of the officers of the old Russian army, who played a significant role in the military victories of the 6th Red Army, came out against it. These are the main reasons for the defeat of the White Army. And, of course, not a complete list of them.

References

1. Arkhangelsk 1584-1984: Fragments of history / [Comp. E.F. Bogdanov, Yu.I. Kolmakov; scientific ed. G.G. Frumenkov, A.S. Schukin]. - Arkhangelsk: North-Zap. KN. Publishing house, 1984. - 333 p., Il.

2. White North. 1918-1920 .: Memoirs and documents. Issue 1./[Сост., Авт. entry st. and V.I.'s comments Goldin]. - Arkhangelsk, inform. Agency "Argus", 1993. - 414 p.

3. Goldin, V.I. Intervention and anti-Bolshevik movement in the Russian North 1918-1920. - M: Moscow State University Publishing House, 1993. - 200s.

4. Makarov, N.A. Land Plesetsk: Years, events, people. - 2nd ed., Ext. and rev. - Arkhangelsk: True of the North, 2002. - 656 pp., Ill., Portr. auth.

5. Makarov, N.A. Plesetsk district of the Arkhangelsk region: Encyclopedic dictionary.- Arkhangelsk: OJSC “IPP“ Pravda Severa ”, 2004. - 528 p., Il.

6. Mymrin, G.E. Anglo-American military intervention in the North and its defeat (1918-1920). - Arkhangelsk Prince. publishing house, 1953. - 224s.


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  • British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

    British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

    British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

    British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

    British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

    British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

    British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

    British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

    British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

    British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)

    British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos) British intervention and civil war in the Russian North (97 photos)