Cruise missile country of the Soviets
On May 23, 1934, the first flight of a 06/1 cruise missile, designed under the leadership of Sergey Korolev, took place.
Cruise missile 06/1
In 1932, a special team dedicated to the design of cruise missiles equipped with liquid-propellant jet engines (LRE) was assigned to the inside of the Jet Propulsion Study Group headed by Sergey Korolyov. The choice of cruise missiles as a promising direction of rocket science is not accidental - even such patriarchal theorists of astronautics, like Tsiolkovsky and Zander, believed that missiles intended for space flights should be equipped with wings. This will allow them to accelerate in the atmosphere along an inclined trajectory, using lifting force and thus not wasting extra fuel.
In addition, the GIRD guessed that it was jet engines that would become the future of aircraft construction. Propeller-driven aircraft approached the threshold of their capabilities: world speed records set in the famous aircraft races for the prize of the French engineering firm Schneider Creuse did not exceed 700 km / h.The installation of more powerful piston engines on airplanes did not allow for an increase in speed, since the weight of the aircraft also increased proportionally with the power. Experiments with jet engines have shown that there is no such hard limit yet.
The tests were problematic: the engine did not want to work stably. After the designers had to replace gasoline with ethanol to reduce engine heat, three more engine tests were carried out, but the torch sneezed, coughed and could barely last more than half a minute.As a result, it was not possible to test the rocket glider in the present flight. Failures with RP-1 were reflected in the mood of Korolev. In 1934, he published the book Rocket Flight in the Stratosphere, which speaks about the prospects of space rockets in very pessimistic terms: the motor is stopped due to the consumption of all fuel ... From here you can make two conclusions. The first is the necessity and expediency of using missiles that immediately develop sufficient speeds and therefore experience very significant accelerations. This is the task of today. The second is that the flight of a person in such devices is currently not possible. We repeat once again that in this case it is not a recovery that is meant, but a flight along some given route with a running engine. ”
Tests of a cruise missile 06/1
At the same time, the legendary designer still saw the point in building rockets - in his opinion, the military could become their main purpose: “It is clear that a rocket, thanks to its exceptional qualities, i.e.speed and a large ceiling (and hence long range), is a very serious weapon. And it is precisely this that should be especially taken into account by all those interested in this field, and not so far baseless fantasies about lunar flights and speed records of non-existent rocket aircraft. ” Here Korolev, in fact, predicted the development of weapons for ballistic and cruise missiles for decades to come, although, of course, in those years no one could imagine the destructive power of nuclear weapons.
Nevertheless, the education in 1933 of the Jet Institute, which gave designers recognition and opportunities that they did not previously have, inspired Korolev to continue the work. And let RP-1 never fly, but this device served as the prototype of the first cruise missile 06 / I, which geometrically represented its reduced copy. The engine, which was installed on the experimental rocket, was oxygen. He provided a low draft - a maximum of 50 kg. But the rocket itself weighed even less - 30 kg.
The rocket took off "in an airplane" - from horizontal guides. According to the plan of Korolyov, the rocket was supposed to rise along an inclined trajectory — approximately at an angle of 60 ° to the horizon, and after the engine was turned off, go on to a planning flight.Switching of modes was achieved using a semi-mechanical control device, which, after a predetermined length of time had passed, deflected the elevators.
On May 23, 1934, the first 06/1 cruise missile took off into the air and made a successful flight. However, it did not differ in special stability in the air - the model 06/1 was able to perform aerobatic maneuvers, but not along the calculated trajectory. That is why the subsequent models had to refine a lot. The success of the experiments changed Korolev's attitude to the question of when humanity would go into space - in the report “Cruise missiles and their use for human flight”, which he read on March 2, 1935 at the First All-Union Conference on the Use of Rocket Apparatus for the Study of the Stratosphere, engineer gives calculations, which he hoped would come in handy very soon: “If we look at the number of people who should be directly involved in such an experimental flight, then it would be desirable Met two or even three people, but since every extra kilogram load is, as we shall see, of paramount importance, it is necessary to begin to focus on one person.Thus, the payload of a cruise missile will in the first approximation consist of 80 kg - the weight of one person, 30 kg - the weight of his equipment, a total of 110 kg. "
In fact, more than a quarter of a century remained before a manned flight into space ... And the rockets that will deliver the first satellite and the first astronaut in history will not be cruise. Nevertheless, the experiments that the Korolev group conducted in the mid-1930s were not in vain: suffice it to say that they were used in the development of jet accelerators, which made it possible to increase the speed of the famous “pawns” - the most massive Pe-2 dive bombers - almost a hundred kilometers per hour.