Kolyma hydroelectric station

Kolyma hydroelectric station

The Kolyma Hydroelectric Power Plant operates in unique conditions with a variety of parameters. First, the power system of the Magadan region is isolated from the unified power system of Russia, and this hydroelectric power station provides approximately 95% of its capacity. Secondly, the station is located in the permafrost zone. It has the highest groundwater dam in Russia, and is also the country's most powerful hydroelectric power station with an underground location of the machine room. Even this one item was enough to go on it. Oh, yes, of course, it is also located in such a way that figs you will reach it. :)

Let me remind you that the first ideas about the construction of a hydropower station on the Kolyma River were put forward by the geologist Voznesensky back in 1932. But beyond a few pre-war projects, the matter did not go. It was decided to use local coal. Interest in the construction of hydropower plants in Kolyma re-emerged in the 1960s. In June 1964, a topographical survey was started in the area of ​​the future hydropower station. In 1965, the Minister of Energy of the USSR P.S. arrived in Magadan together with a large group of hydraulic engineers.Non-empty; Based on this trip, it was decided to start exploration at the Kolyma hydroelectric station. In 1965, topographic works were completed, the first squad of surveyors, hydraulic engineers, landed in the alignment. In December 1966, Lengidroproekt began the development of the project of the Kolymskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant, in 1967, the expedition No. 13 of the institute began comprehensive research at the site.
On November 6, 1969, an order was signed to establish the construction department Kolymagesstroy as part of the Vilyuigesstroy. In January 1970, the State Planning Committee of the USSR opened the title of preparatory work for the Kolyma hydroelectric station. On February 17, 1970, the first auto train with construction equipment arrived at the station from the Vilyui hydroelectric station in Yakutia and on March 5 of the same year. At the same time, people and equipment were being promoted from the direction of Magadan - in March 1970, in the area of ​​the village of Uttar, a site was chosen for the transshipment base for construction. The preparatory stage of construction began - the construction of housing, roads, construction bases and other infrastructure.
The Kolyma Hydroelectric Power Station, unlike many others, did not start from tents and dams, but from transshipment bases, from access roads, housing and social facilities, from the construction of the settlement of hydro-builders Sinegorye.In 1972, the first school opened here, the construction of two-storey houses made of wooden lumber was launched, then rows of beautiful and comfortable aluminum-panel houses appeared, like twin brothers. The construction was carried out under extremely harsh weather conditions in the permafrost zone. The climate is sharply continental: with very cold winters and moderately warm summers. The annual amplitude of air temperature fluctuations reaches 98 degrees, the minimum winter temperature is minus 62 degrees. The heating period lasts 270 days.
Simultaneously with the continuation of the construction of settlements of hydraulic builders, work on the main structures of the hydropower station began; on June 4, 1974, the first bucket of soil was removed, and in 1976 the Kolymskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant was declared an All-Union shock construction. At the same time in the Komsomol-youth teams worked two and a half thousand boys and girls. In 1980, they blocked Kolyma in the alignment of hydropower stations, and after only five months, the first hydraulic unit was tested at idle. The last, fifth hydraulic unit was commissioned in 1994. In 2010, the station was named after the head of its construction and the first director, Yuriy I. Frishter.

one.The Kolyma hydroelectric station is located at 1854 km from the mouth of the river of the same name, at the location of the Great Kolyma rapids (currently flooded by the hydroelectric reservoir). At the hydroelectric station, the valley of the river narrows, forming a gorge with steep slopes.

2. Structurally, the Kolyma hydroelectric station is a powerful high-pressure dam hydroelectric station. Hydropower facilities are divided into a stone dam, an underground hydroelectric power station with a water intake, a spillway, a production and technological complex (PTC) with a closed switchgear (LPG). The Kolyma hydroelectric station has a large number of permanent and temporary underground structures with a total length of 7.2 km and a break-up volume of 425 thousand m³. The installed capacity of the power plant is 900 MW, the guaranteed capacity is 224 MW, the average annual electricity generation is 3.325 billion kWh.
3. The shooting was in September, when the peak of the summer-autumn rain flood ended, but to maintain the water level in order to prolong the summer intake along the river, the station triggers water through the spillway. With the introduction of the Ust-Srednekanskaya HPP in full, it will be possible to switch to it the regulation of shipping releases, which will remove restrictions on the modes of operation of the Kolymskaya HPP.In the meantime, after each discharge of water it is necessary to strengthen the river bottom and the opposite bank, since the spillway works longer than was calculated.

4. Main control board. The symbiosis of the sad circuitry of the 80s with even more boring modern computers.

5. But in the racks it is already more interesting - analogue relays and modern microprocessor systems.

6. As I wrote above, this is the most powerful station in our country with an underground workshop. A small example of a cross section along a water intake. The diagram shows the development of the first stage, when the station was started up with a small pressure.

7. The entrance to the tunnel, which will lead to the engine room.

8. The length of the tunnel is 300 meters. In addition, there are lift shafts and emergency exits.

9. Initially, I thought it was a drainage pumping, but then, in the photo, I saw four cylinders and a black mushroom each. Most likely, this is a compressor station.

10. Truly huge tunnels that go somewhere deep into the mountains. Peacefully parked tractor :)

11. The tunnel, dropping sharply, turns almost 360 degrees.

12. Lining is different. Sprayed concrete, just concrete. Anchor.

13. The machine room of the Kolyma hydroelectric station - underground, located in the rock break of the left bank, has a length of 130 m and a width of 24 m, consists of an assembly site and five aggregate blocks.In the machine room there are 5 hydraulic units of 180 MW each: four with diagonal turbines and one with a radial-axial turbine.

14. An interesting story is the appearance of a hydraulic unit with a radial-axial turbine. The fact is that after the launch of hydraulic units it turned out that some of their elements do not have sufficient reliability. In 1985, in the spiral chambers of hydraulic units No. 1 and 2, the destruction of sections of steel cladding was recorded. In addition, active cracking was observed in turbine blades, which on June 24, 1991 led to a breakage of the turbine blade of hydraulic unit No. 3. As a result, the guide vanes and turbine cover were damaged, the turbine was damaged, and the turbine shaft of the hydraulic unit was flooded. The threat of flooding the entire engine room was prevented by the operational closure of the valves. In 1998, the hydraulic unit No. 1 was replaced with a diagonal hydrodynamic on a radial-axial, but the replacement of the remaining turbines, it was decided to abandon, because after the modifications carried out, their reliability no longer causes doubt.

15. When I was at the station, the third hydraulic unit was undergoing major repairs.

sixteen.All work is carried out on the assembly site in the underground machine room.

17. The stator of the generator.

18. View of the hydraulic unit. Along the edges - mounting blades guide vanes.

19. In the center is a system for changing the angle of attack of turbine blades. Used at the beginning of the start for a smooth exit to the operating modes.

20. From hydrogenerators, electricity is supplied with a voltage of 13.8 kV through three bus galleries to a generator switchgear located in the PTK (Production and Technological Building).

21. Water in water turbines enters five pressure conduits with a length of 262 m and a diameter of 6 m each from a water receiver located on the left bank, near the spillway. During the period of temporary operation of hydroelectric power plants at a reduced head, a temporary water intake and temporary conduits for the first three hydraulic units were used. Subsequently, the temporary water intake was decommissioned and flooded by the reservoir, and the temporary conduits were sealed with concrete traffic jams.

22. The water intake is adjacent to the dam and is separated from it by a retaining wall. The water intake consists of five sections 18 m wide each adjacent to the water lines.
23.The pressure structures of the hydroelectric power station form a large Kolyma reservoir of seasonal regulation (flow regulation factor of 0.7). The reservoir area is 454.6 km², the total and useful reservoir capacity is 15.08 and 7.24 km³, respectively.
24. When creating the reservoir, 40.84 thousand hectares of farmland (mainly reindeer pastures) were flooded, 66 buildings were transferred.

25. The mark of the normal retaining level of the reservoir is 451.5 m above sea level, the forced retaining level is 457.6 m, the level of the dead volume is 432.0 m.
26. As I have already written, the Kolymskaya HPP is the main source of energy for the Magadan Region, providing about 95% of its energy consumption. Putting the hydropower plant into operation allowed the Arkagalinskaya TPP to be brought into reserve and the coal consumption at the Magadan CHP was significantly reduced (with the termination of the heating period, the CHP plant is stopped and the electric boiler is used). A number of settlements in the Magadan Region were also transferred to electric heating. The reduction of coal consumption allows annually prevent burning of about 1 million tons of this type of fuel. In the course of the construction of the Kolyma hydroelectric station, the villages of Sinegorye and Uptar, power lines, transport infrastructure were also constructed.

27.Left heated building intake. On the right is a building with winches to control the spillway valves.

28. Monumental trestle for winches.

29. The spillway of the Kolyma hydroelectric station is surface, coastal, located to the left of the dam in a rocky excavation and adjoins the water intake of the hydroelectric power station building, having a common supply channel with it. The discharge capacity of the spillway is 11,300 m³ / s.
30. The spillway is made of concrete, consists of a three-span weir and rapid flows, ending with springboards. Each of the three spillways of the spillway 13 m wide is overlapped by a segmented shutter 21 m high.

31. During the construction of the station, a temporary discharge facility was used, located on the right bank at the base of the dam, with a total length of 1060 m. and a height of 29.5 m, a discharge channel with a length of 360 m with a turn, a water well and a concrete apron. The capacity of the temporary spillway is 10,700 m³ / s. The construction of the temporary spillway took 8 years, 400 thousand were laid in it.m³ of concrete (30% of all concrete works at the Kolymskaya HPP), its estimated cost was 80 million rubles in 1984 prices. The use of a temporary spillway in the period of permanent operation of the HPP is not provided, at present it is concreted. Such a decision with respect to such a complex and expensive construction by some specialists is considered an engineering mistake.
32. Dam section - one can see a temporary, small height in the body of the main dam. Interestingly, the Kolyma River was blocked twice. December 4, 1978 Kolyma was blocked for the first time, the water went through the construction tunnel. It was supposed to skip the 1979 flood over the jumpers and the unfinished part of the main dam, protecting it from erosion with a large stone laid in 1 m. However, the flood destroyed the protection and washed away the soil laid in the dam. The second overlap of Kolyma was made on September 20, 1980, water was passed through a temporary spillway that had not been completed by that time. The construction of the temporary dam of the Kolyma hydroelectric station with a height of 62 meters was made in 1980–1981 in 15 months between two ceilings.

Why did we need a temporary dam and this expensive temporary spillway ?! Everything turned out to be simple.The directive pressure of the party organs (the first hydraulic unit was required to start the opening of the XXVI CPSU Congress in February 1981), in the conditions of underfinancing of construction and existing technical problems, led to a reduction in the start-up complex in order to ensure the station start-up at a specified time. On February 24, 1981, the first hydraulic unit was commissioned, but under the conditions of an unfinished temporary dam and insignificant flow in the river, in winter the water accumulated in the reservoir was only enough for 8 days of operation of the hydraulic unit, after which it was stopped. This information reached the USSR People’s Control Committee, the result of which was the revocation of the act of acceptance of the hydraulic unit for operation and the deprivation of the builders team of government awards. Re-launch of hydraulic unit No. 1 was carried out in June 1982 (acceptance certificate was signed on June 27), on October 22 of the same year, hydraulic unit No. 2 was commissioned, June 15, 1984 - hydraulic unit No. 3, on which the construction of the first stage of the Kolyma hydroelectric station was completed .
33. The dam of the Kolyma hydroelectric stoneware with an impervious core.The maximum construction height of the dam is 134.5 m (the highest unpaved dam in Russia), the length of the ridge is 683 m, the width of the ridge is 15 m. soils, as well as filters of sand and gravel soil, located between the core and resistant prisms. The dam wedge includes a temporary dam with a height of 62 m and an anti-filtration core used during the construction of the station. The body volume of the dam is 10 million m³, of which 8 million m³ falls on rock size, 1.2 million m³ per core, and 0.8 million m³ on filters. At the base of the dam there is a reinforced concrete grouting gallery, the rocky foundation under the dam core is lined with concrete. Also in the right-bank part of the dam at its base is a temporary discharge facility, used during the construction of the station and now concreted. Watertightness of rocks at the base of the dam is ensured by a cementing curtain 60–100 m deep.

34. The spillway rapid flow trays are located at different heights (the highest is left, under No. 1) and are separated by bulls.The length of the trays is different, the greatest - at the tray number 1 (220 m); due to this, the end portion of the spillway with jumps is located at an angle to the axis of the chutes, which enhances the effect of dispersion of the jet and turns the flow from the left bank slope to the river bed. The quenching of the flow of energy occurs in the pit erosion in the river bed.

35. Settlement Sinegorye.

36. Another feature of the station is a closed switchgear located on the roof of the PTC. This atypical location and vertical layout is due to the lack of space for the construction of an open switchgear and the desire to hide the equipment under the roof. Because of the vertical layout, interesting technical solutions had to be applied - vertical disconnectors.

37. To disconnect, they fall to the floor.

38. The rest of the equipment is also mounted. And the electricity is supplied on four power lines at a voltage of 220 kV.

39. During blasting, this stone flew into the closed switchgear, broke through the wall and remained on the floor.

40. We decided not to pull it out (it is, in general, difficult) and leave it to memory.

41. Panorama of the downstream with a working discharge.
42Suddenly a rainbow.

43. Naturally, it was necessary to catch a frame of a spillway and a rainbow.
44. Many thanks to the press service of Rus-Hydro for the opportunity to get to these remote places. Special thanks to Yura Popov and Yulia Pavlovskaya.

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  • Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station

    Kolyma hydroelectric station