Land Facts

Land Facts

earth

We offer you a selection of a variety of facts dedicated to our planet.

1. So different colors of the sky

Aurora appears when charged particles that emanate from the sun reach the magnetic field of our planet and collapse in the upper atmosphere near the poles. Particles become more active during the period of maximum solar activity, which occurs cyclically every 11 years. People are less likely to watch the aurora near the South Pole because they rarely appear off the coast of Antarctica.

2. There are other planets like ours.

Scientists assume that in the Universe there are many planets similar to ours. Evidence was found that planets like Earth rotate around distant stars. For example, a planet called Kepler 22-b rotates around a star at the same distance from it as our planet from the Sun, and this indicates that there may be favorable conditions for life on this planet. Although there is life on these planets - is still the subject of controversy in the scientific world.

3. Who got to the south pole?

The first person who successfully crossed the Antarctic desert to reach the South Pole was Norwegian Roald Amundsen. He and 4 others with the help of sleds that were pulled by dogs reached the pole in December 1911. Amundsen said he was lucky through careful planning.

4. The driest place

The driest place on the planet where people sometimes appear is the Atacama Desert in Chile and Peru. In the center of this desert there are places where rain has never been recorded. Although rain has not been observed for millions of years in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica.

5. Open spaces

People who sometimes like to be alone are advised to go to Greenland. This island has the lowest population density on Earth. So in 2010, only 56534 people lived on an area of ​​2166086 square kilometers. Most residents of Greenland can be found off the coast.

6. The most populous city

Do not like densely populated cities? Then we do not advise you to go to Manila. This city - the capital of the Philippines - is the most densely populated city on the planet, where a relatively large part of the country's population is forced to huddle on a relatively small patch of land.According to the census in 2007, 1,660,714 people were placed on 38.55 square kilometers!

7. The tiniest mammal

A large number of tiny creatures live on Earth, the body of some of them consists of only one cell. But the smallest mammal animal can be called a pigeon bat. This vulnerable bat species lives in southeast Asia. The mouse is about 3–3.3 centimeters long and weighs about 2 grams. This bat can compete with a dwarf polydent, which has approximately the same dimensions.

8. The largest organisms

The largest organisms on the planet can be called, oddly enough, mushrooms. Most of the fungal organism is hidden under the ground. In 1992, scientists reported in the journal Nature that the shade in Oregon covered an area of ​​0.89 hectares.

9. Breathing giants

When we try to remember the largest living creatures on the planet, whales and elephants come to mind. Giant Sequoia "General Sherman" is by volume the largest tree on the planet, which grows in Sequoia National Park, California. The trunk of the tree contains 1486.6 cubic meters of material.

10. The largest pool

The largest oceanic basin on the planet is considered to be the Pacific Ocean basin, which covers an area of ​​155 million square kilometers and contains more than half of all water on Earth. It is so big that all the continents could fit in the same area.

11. Populated coastlines

Coastlines occupy only 20 percent of the United States, not including Alaska, and are home to more than 50 percent of Americans, that is, most prefer to live by the sea.

12. The most powerful volcanic eruption

The strongest eruption, witnessed by a man, occurred in April 1815 on Mount Tambora, in Indonesia. According to the VEI scale, this eruption reached 7 points. Moreover, the highest point of the scale is the number 8. According to eyewitnesses, the eruption was so powerful that the sounds of a roaring volcano could be heard even on the island of Sumatra in 1930 kilometers. The eruption claimed the lives of about 71 thousand people, black smoke could be observed on the islands, located quite far from the volcano.

13. The most active volcano

The most active volcano can be called Stromboli volcano, which is located on a volcanic island in the Mediterranean Sea, in the south-west of Italy. Over the past 20 thousand years, the volcano erupted almost constantly.In the dark, due to lava lighting, the volcano can be seen from the sea, so it is sometimes called the “Lighthouse of the Mediterranean”.

14. The formation of mountains

Although the moving layers of rock, which are called tectonic plates, are hidden from our eyes, we can see the results of their movement on the surface of the planet. Between India and Tibet are the Himalayas, which stretch over a distance of 2,900 kilometers. This long mountain range was formed between about 40 and 50 million years ago, when India and Eurasia due to the movement of the plates merged.

15. Supercontinent

It is believed that in the 4.5 billion years of our planet’s existence, the continents of the Earth once united to become a single continent, and then divided again. The most recent single continent was Pangea, which began to be divided into its constituent parts about 200 million years ago. Scientists suggest that in the future the continents will come together again.

16. Formation of the Moon

Many researchers believe that some large objects long ago collided with the Earth, as a result of which a fragment from the planet, from which the Moon later formed, broke off from the planet.It is not yet clear whether this object was another planet, an asteroid or a comet, but some scientists suggest that the originator was the planet Theia, which is the size of Mars.

17. Distance to star

Earth is about 150 million kilometers from the Sun. In order to reach the surface of our planet, sunlight needs 8 minutes 19 seconds.

18. Space dust

Every day, cosmic dust falls on the surface of our planet: about 100 tons of interplanetary material (mainly in the form of dust). The smallest particles emit comets when their ice begins to evaporate as they approach the Sun.

19. Riches of our planet

In the largest seas of the planet contains more than 20 million tons of gold, but to get it is not so easy. Gold is so dissolved in seawater that, on average, in every liter you can find just 13 billionth of a gram of gold. Gold in undissolved form is hidden deep in the depths of the rock, on the ocean floor, so it is not yet possible to mine it. But if this happened, every person on the planet could become a potential owner of 4.5 kilograms of precious metal, but would he still be precious?

20. Water World

Oceans cover about 70 percent of the earth's surface, but people have so far studied only 5 percent. Man never saw the remaining 95 percent of the ocean.

21. Natural electricity

Thunder and lightning - one of the most terrible phenomena of nature. Just one lightning strike can heat the air to about 30 thousand degrees Celsius, which causes the air to expand strongly and creates a blast wave, as well as a strong roar, which we call thunder.

22. She was purple

Once upon a time, the earth was purple, although today it changed color to green, suggests hil DasSarma, a microbial geneticist from the University of Maryland. Ancient microbes, he said, could use not chlorophyll, but other molecules in order to curb the sun's rays. Such molecules could give them a purple hue.

Dassarma believes that chlorophyll appeared after another light-sensitive molecule called retinal, which already existed on a young planet. The retinal can now be found on the plum-colored membranes of a photosynthetic microbe of halobacteria, it absorbs green light and reflects red and purple, and when mixed, purple light appears.

23.Glacier age measurement

People leave their marks on the planet in many ways. For example, tests of nuclear weapons in the 1950s led to the release of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which eventually fell with rain and snow. These sediments settled in the glaciers, where they formed layers by which scientists are trying to figure out the age of the ice.

24. Loss of water

With climate change, glaciers are losing ice, leading to rising sea levels. As it turned out, if one single glacier melts, it will raise the amount of melt water by 10 percent. The Canadian glacier between 2004 and 2009 has already lost a lot of ice, which turned into water, with a volume equal to 75 percent of Lake Erie.

25. The explosion of the lakes

Lakes can explode too. In Cameroon, on the border with Rwan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, there are 3 threatening lakes: Nios, Monoun and Kivu. All these lakes are craters, they are located at the top of the volcano. Magma beneath their surface emits carbon dioxide, which accumulates in layers beneath the bed of the lake. If carbon dioxide escapes freedom, anyone who is nearby will have nothing to breathe.

26. Lowest Point Sushi

The lowest point on land is easily accessible. This is the Dead Sea, located between Jordan and Israel. The water level is 423 meters below sea level, and it continues to fall by about 1 meter per year.

27. The deepest point

How deep in the depths of the earth people can get? The deepest point on the planet is the Mariana Trench, with a depth of 10,916 meters below sea level. The deepest point of the planet, not covered by the ocean, is at a depth of 2555 meters below sea level, but you can hardly get there. This is the depression of Bentley, in Antarctica, which is filled with a thick layer of ice.

28. Richest Ecosystems

Coral reefs attract the largest number of living creatures per unit area than any other planet’s ecosystems. With them can compete except rainforests. Reefs are made up of tiny coral polyps that build calcareous structures. They are the largest living structures on the planet, which can be seen even from space. Unfortunately, coral reefs are dying faster and faster due to deteriorating ecology and climate change.

29. Longest mountain range

If you would like to see the longest mountain range, you would have to sink deep into the water. Underwater chains stretch for a distance of 65 thousand kilometers - this is a chain of underwater volcanoes that girds the Earth. Lava erupts at the bottom of the oceans, forming seamounts.

30. Conquering peaks

On May 8, 1978, the Italian mountaineer Reinhold Messner, together with Peter Habeler, conquered the summit of Everest by climbing to the highest point of the planet without using oxygen.

31. Stones can walk

Stones are able to move on the surface of the planet, at least on the surface of the dried Lake Reestrek Playa, in Death Valley, California. Sometimes the wind can move stones weighing tens and even hundreds of kilograms. Most likely, the clay surface of the plateau becomes more slippery when snow melts in the nearby mountains. This allows the wind to push and move stones along the surface.

32. The Earth may have another Moon.

Some scientists claim that Earth has another satellite besides the Moon. According to studies whose results were published late last year in the journal ICARUS,a cosmic body measuring at least 1 meter rotates in the Earth’s orbit at any time. That is, it is not always the same body, but the so-called “temporary moons,” scientists say. According to their theory, the gravitational field of the Earth can capture asteroids that fly near our planet, orbiting the sun. When a similar asteroid approaches the Earth, it begins to rotate around it and makes 3 turns, remaining in orbit for about 9 months, and then is removed again.

33. Two moons?

Once upon a time, the Earth had two large moons - two moons. The second satellite with a diameter of about 1200 kilometers, according to scientists, revolved around our planet until it collided with the Moon. This catastrophe may explain why the two sides of the modern moon are so different from each other.

34. Changing the direction of the magnetic field

Over the past 20 million years, on our planet every 200–300 thousand years there has been a change in the direction of the magnetic field, although this process does not have a special periodicity. Changes cannot happen in the blink of an eye. This process requires hundreds and thousands of years.

35. The highest mountains

Mount Everest, or, as it is also called, Chomolungma, is the highest mountain. Its peak is located at an altitude of 8848 meters above sea level.However, if you measure a mountain from its very foundation to the top, it reaches 17,170 meters.

36. Magnetic field

The Earth has a magnetic field due to the ocean of hot and liquid metal, which is concentrated around its solid iron core. This stream of liquid metal creates an electric current, which in turn forms a magnetic field. Since the beginning of the 19th century, the north magnetic pole of the Earth has moved to the north by 1,100 kilometers, according to NASA researchers. The speed of movement increases, while at the present time the north pole moves at a speed of 64 kilometers per year. In the 20th century, it moved at a speed of 16 km / year.

37. Strange gravity

Due to the fact that our planet is not a perfect ball, its mass is unevenly distributed. Fluctuations in mass cause fluctuations in gravity. One example of anomalous gravity is Hudson Bay in Canada. In this area, gravity is lower than elsewhere on the planet. In 2007, scientists found that melted glaciers were to blame. The ice, which covered the area during the last ice age, melted, but the planet did not have time to recover from this burden.

38. The largest stalagmite

The world's largest stalagmite found in Cuba. This formation has a height of 67.2 meters.

39. Extreme Continent

The most southern continent - Antarctica is the very edge of the Earth. The Antarctic ice cap contains 70 percent of the world's freshwater resources and 90 percent of the world's ice.

40. The coldest point

It will not be a big surprise to find out that the coldest place on the planet is in Antarctica. However, the thermometer thermometer there falls to an unprecedented amount. In winter, temperatures can reach minus 73 degrees Celsius. But the most extremely low temperature was recorded on July 21, 1983 at the Russian station Vostok and amounted to minus 89.2 degrees Celsius.

41. The hottest place

The hottest place on the planet is Libya, where the thermometer showed 57.8 degrees Celsius above zero in September 1922. Perhaps somewhere in the desert there are more hot spots, but they are outside the observation stations.

42. The strongest earthquake

The strongest earthquake that was observed in the United States was an earthquake measuring 9.2 points, which occurred in Alaska on March 28, 1964.But the most powerful earthquake recorded by modern seismologists is the earthquake in Chile, which occurred on May 22, 1960. Its capacity was 9.5 points.

43. Moonquakes

Moonquakes or “earthquakes on the moon” also sometimes happen, but not as often and with the same intensity as on Earth. Scientists believe that moonquakes are associated with tidal forces of the Sun and the Earth, as well as some other causes. Moonquakes can occur at great depths between the surface of the moon and its center.

44. Earth's age

Scientists have calculated the age of the Earth, exploring the oldest rocks and meteorites that have been discovered on the planet. Meteorites and the Earth were formed at about the same time as the Solar System was formed. According to scientists, the Earth is already 4.54 billion years old.

45. Movement of rocks

The land we walk on is made from recycled materials. During certain cycles, volcanic rocks turn into sedimentary rocks, and then metamorphic rocks and all over again. This cycle is not perfect: magma from the bowels of the earth rises and cools and turns into a volcanic rock.Tectonic processes raise the rock to the surface, where erosion destroys it. Tiny fragments add up, and pressure compresses them and turns them into sedimentary rock, for example, sandstone. If sedimentary rocks accumulate even deeper, they can turn into metamorphic rocks under high pressure and high temperature. During the process, sedimentary rocks may collapse, and metamorphic rocks rise higher. But if the metamorphic rocks move deeper into kinks, when one of the layers jostles the other, these rocks will eventually become magma again, and the process will be repeated.

46. ​​Journey around the sun

The Earth rotates around its axis, and also moves around the Sun with a crazy, by our standards, speed - 107826 kilometers per hour.

47. In motion

It seems to you that you are standing without movement, but in fact you are moving very quickly. Depending on which part of the earth you are in, you will move at different speeds. The fastest moving people who are on the equator.

48. The planet has a waist

Mother Earth has a waist - the length of its circumference is 40075 kilometers.

49. Flatten form

The earth has an irregular shape. In the process of rotation, gravity is directed to the center of the planet, and the centrifugal force goes to the side. Due to the rotation, a bulge is created at the equator of the planet, so the equatorial diameter is 43 kilometers larger than the diameter between the poles.

50. Third planet

Our home planet Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only planet in the solar system where conditions exist, an atmosphere with free oxygen is maintained, there are oceans of liquid water on the surface and, most importantly, life is on it.

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