Neoplasms in the cervix: types, diagnosis, removal
The essence of the disease
The cervical polyp is an abnormal growth of the mucous membrane that lines the surface of the endometrium in the area located between the vagina and the uterus.
There are three main types of such a polyp:
- Glandular - soft, consisting of a very sensitive tissue - it can cause severe pain and discomfort even when walking, not to mention sexual contact or gynecological examination.
- Fibrous - a polyp consisting of a dense substance, which is a common connective tissue. It is often not diagnosed without medical help in the early stages, and also rarely provokes additional secretions due to its special biological properties.
- Also the combined type of a polyp meets. Fibrous glandular growth is considered the most unpleasant,as it is difficult to diagnose in the early stages and can cause certain problems during removal associated with increased sensitivity of the surrounding tissues.
The causes of the polyp
The causes of growth can be different, but most often the polyps of the cervical canal are found in violation of the normal hormonal levels. In addition, the need for an operation to remove a polyp often occurs when taking oral or vaginal contraceptives based on potent substances.
A neoplasm on the surface of the cervical canal can also occur after infection. It is worth noting the existence of such a cause as a sluggish infection of the urogenital system, which is accompanied by tissue regeneration. In such a case, a polyp can occur not only in the cervical canal, but also in the vagina, on the surface of the cervix.
Polyp of the cervical canal during pregnancy occurs extremely rarely - usually this disease exists even before fertilization. However, the process of carrying a child can cause the formation of a polyp. As a rule, after the second or third birth, the process of changing the cervical canal begins - its tissues lose elasticity and acquire other biological properties.
In addition, in women with impaired reproductive properties or a weakened body, a polyp can develop after the first birth.
Symptoms and diagnosis
If the polyps of the cervical canal are glandular, already from the first days of their appearance, a woman may begin to have a pulling pain in the lower part of the abdominal cavity. If you do not carry out the operation of removing such tumors at an early stage, the pain can become acute and be in the nature of attacks or contractions.
If the polyps are fibrous, after their appearance the pain may be absent - it will manifest itself only when the growth becomes large enough.
Another sign is the discharge that occurs during the period between menstruations - they can be watery in nature with a small admixture of blood. Often there are spotting secretions that are a sign of a mile proliferation of a polyp.In addition, it can be a symptom of many other diseases, so after finding such a problem, you should immediately go to a gynecologist.
During menstruation, a polyp manifests itself in a significant increase in the volume of bleeding, as well as in the enhancement of pain syndromes. If the discharge has a brownish or yellowish tinge, as well as an unpleasant odor, inflammation of the cervical canal is likely to occur, especially dangerous during pregnancy.
When an abnormality of the cervical canal is detected, the doctor also takes swabs that can detect the presence of infection or tumor markers. Based on this, decisions are made about the need for removal.
In the normal state of the woman’s body, all polyps, without exception, are removed, and during pregnancy or during the course of a disease, an expediency analysis is carried out.
It is worth remembering that the only treatment is the removal of a polyp of the cervical canal.If you come up with a proposal for medical healing or the use of folk methods, you should refuse, since their effectiveness tends to zero.
Use antibacterial, painkillers, as well as anti-inflammatory drugs only after the removal of the formed polyp in the absence of contraindications.
If the presence of cancer is confirmed, the doctor may prescribe chemotherapy or specialized potent drugs. In addition, with the anomaly of the cervical canal and restorative physiotherapy is used, which allows you to eliminate the effects of the disease.
Polyp of the cervical canal during pregnancy is eliminated only in the case when its diameter exceeds 10 mm. In other cases, the risk of the consequences of treatment will be much higher than the probability of spontaneous miscarriage resulting from the appearance of a neoplasm of the cervical canal.
If there is extensive inflammation, an artificial termination of pregnancy is performed followed by curettage, since the probability of preserving the fetus in this case is minimal.When the child is born without any trouble, after birth, surgery is prescribed for about 2-3 months to avoid complications.
Many women are afraid of surgery to remove a polyp, because they believe that it is associated with pain and a variety of unpleasant sensations. In fact, this is not the case, since currently the following methods are used that fall into the category of minimally invasive:
- thermal coagulation (point cautery);
- cryogenic coagulation (exposure to cold);
- radio wave exposure;
- laparoscopic surgery, which is performed using a small instrument that causes minimal damage to surrounding tissues.
If the polyps are small in size, sometimes they are used to overstretch their bases during local anesthesia, which allows them to be destroyed without undue interference with the body’s activities.