Suppression of the rebellion in 1956 (photos and documents)
Original taken fromoper_1974at
Special folder. Ow. secretly. Ex. № 1
At 6 hours and 15 minutes. November 4th The Soviet troops launched an operation to restore order and restore the people's democratic government in Hungary.
Acting on a predetermined plan, our units seized the main reaction points in the provinces, such as Gyor, Miskolc, Gyöngyös, Debrecen, as well as other regional centers of Hungary.
During the operation, Soviet troops occupied the most important communications centers, including a powerful broadcasting radio station in Szolnok, warehouses of ammunition and weapons and other important military installations.
The Soviet troops operating in the city of Budapest, having broken the resistance of the rebels, occupied the buildings of the parliament, the Central Committee of the High Command, and also a radio station in the parliament area.
Captured three bridges across the river. The Danube, linking the eastern and western parts of the city, and an arsenal of weapons and ammunition. The entire composition of the counterrevolutionary government of Imre Nadia disappeared.Searches are in progress.
In the city of Budapest, there remained one large center of resistance of the rebels in the area of the Korvin cinema (south-eastern part of the city). The ultimatum about surrender was presented to the rebels defending this stronghold; in connection with the rebels' refusal to surrender, the troops began to storm.
The main garrisons of the Hungarian troops are blocked. Many of them laid down arms without serious resistance. Our troops were instructed to return to the command of the Hungarian officers who had been shot by the rebels, and to arrest the officers who had been appointed in return for those removed.
In order to prevent enemy agents from escaping into Hungary and the leaders of the insurgents from Hungary flee our troops occupied Hungarian airfields and all roads along the Austro-Hungarian border were firmly blocked. The troops, continuing to carry out the assigned tasks, clear the territory of Hungary from the rebels.
APRF. F. 3. Op. 64. D. 485.
Information of the USSR Ministry of Defense in the Central Committee of the CPSU on the situation in Hungary as of 9.00 on November 7, 1956
Special folder Owls. secretly. Ex. № 1
During the night of November 7, Soviet troops continued to liquidate small groups of rebels in the city of Budapest.In the western part of the city, our troops fought to destroy the center of resistance in the area of the former palace of Horthy.
During the night, there was a regrouping of rebel forces in the city of Budapest. Small groups tried to leave the city in a westerly direction. At the same time, a major center of resistance was revealed in the area of the city theater, the park east of this theater and in the adjacent neighborhoods.
It was calm at night in Hungary. Our troops carried out measures to identify and disarm rebel groups and individual Hungarian units.
The Government of the Hungarian People’s Republic left Szolnok and arrived at Budapest at 6.10 am on November 7. Troops continue to perform assigned tasks.
Mark: "Comrade Khrushchev acquainted. Archive. 9.XI.56. Doluda".
AP RF. F. 3. Op. 64. D. 486.
Information of the USSR Ministry of Defense in the Central Committee of the CPSU on the situation in Hungary as of 9.00 on 9 November 1956
Special folder Owls. secretly. Ex. № 1
During November 8, our troops cleaned up Budapest, scoured forests in certain parts of the country, caught and disarmed scattered small groups of insurgents, and also seized weapons from the local population.
District military commandant's offices have been established in Budapest.A normal life is gradually improving in the country, a number of enterprises, urban transport, hospitals and schools have begun work. Deploy their activities to local governments.
According to preliminary data, the loss of the Soviet troops during the period of hostilities in Hungary from October 24 to November 6 with. 377 people were killed, 881 were wounded. Including 37 killed and 74 wounded officers.
Our troops disarmed about 35,000 Hungarians. A large number of weapons, military equipment and ammunition are being captured during the fighting and taken under protection as a result of disarmament.
Mark: "Comrade Khrushchev acquainted. Archive. 10.IX.56. Doluda."
AP RF. F. 3. Op. 64. D. 486. L. 43.
Information of the USSR Ministry of Defense in the Central Committee of the CPSU on the situation in Hungary as of 9 am on November 10, 1956
Special folder Owls. secretly. Ex. № 1
During November 9, our troops continued the liquidation of small groups of insurgents, disarmed the former soldiers of the Hungarian army, and also seized weapons from the local population.
A group of insurgents put up stubborn resistance in the suburbs of Budapest, on the northern outskirts of Chepel Island. Three of our tanks were destroyed and burned in this area.
The political situation in the country continues to improve.However, in some places, hostile elements are still trying to prevent the establishment of order and the normalization of life in the country.
The situation in Budapest, where the population lacks food and fuel, continues to be difficult. The government of Janos Kadar, together with the Command of the Soviet Forces, is taking measures to provide the population of Budapest with food.
Mark: "Comrade Khrushchev reported. Archive. 10.XI.56. Doluda."
AP RF. F. 3. Op. 64. D. 486. L. 96.
Telephone I.A. Serov from Budapest N.S. Khrushchev on the operational work carried out by the Soviet and Hungarian state security agencies 09.11.1956
Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Comrade. Khrushchev N.S.
Yesterday, the Minister of Public Security, Comrade Munnich, sent an order to regional organizations, which indicated that on the ground, contrary to the government’s prohibition, state security bodies were being created. Therefore, he orders all employees of state security agencies to stop work on the formation of bodies and go home.
Considering that the special divisions of the divisions do all the work on the withdrawal of counter-revolutionary rebels through the Hungarian state security officers, who appeared after the cities were occupied by units of the Soviet Army, today I spoke with t.Munnich and asked how he further has in mind to conduct work on the identification and arrest of the counter-revolutionary element after such an order.
Tov. Munnich replied to me that he issued the directive on the basis of the instructions of the government in the manner prescribed by the Government Declaration.
After some time, Comrade Kadar came to the office of m. Munnich, who said that he would also like to talk with me. During the conversation, Comrade Kadar focused on the following issues:
1. He had representatives from some regions, in particular the Salnok region, who informed Kadar that the Soviet Army officers were arresting a lot and, along with the arrest of the counter-revolutionary element, ordinary members of the insurgency were also arrested.
He believes that this should not be done, as the people who participated in the rebel movement are very much afraid of revenge from the government, while the Government’s Declaration said that those who put down their arms and stop resistance will not be punished. The Hungarian government should not take revenge and be cruel to such persons.
The representative of the region Salnok reported t.Kadaru, that when 40 people were arrested in the region, representatives from the workers came and said that they would not start working until they released the prisoners. In other areas there were rumors that 6 thousand people were arrested in Salnoq.
Tov. Kadar indicated that the reactionaries were arrested by former state security officials, whom the government had dissolved. It is not profitable for the people that the state security officers in Hungary are involved in arrests. You have to consider that the mood of the masses is of great importance in our country. The Soviet comrades and our employees of the state security organs by arrest can cause outrage of the masses.
I said that the state security officers in Hungary are now doing a positive job in seizing counter-revolutionary rebels. A few days later, when people who pose a danger to the current government will be isolated, then these employees should be transferred to another job. Tov. Kadar and m. Munnich agreed with this.
I explained to Comrade Kadar that special divisions of divisions were instructed to arrest all the organizers of the insurgency, those who resisted parts of the Soviet Army with arms, as well as citizens,who incited and incited hatred of the people (in the period of the government of Nagy) to the communists and employees of the state security bodies, as a result of which some of them were shot, hanged and burned.
As for the ordinary participants in the uprising, they are not arrested. Tov. Kadar and m. Munnich agreed that this indication was correct.
I further added that it is possible that individuals who do not belong to the listed categories may be arrested. Therefore, all those arrested are carefully filtered and those who have not played an active role in the rebellion are released.
Taking into account the liberal attitude exerted by Hungarian executives towards enemies, I have instructed the special departments to send all arrested people faster from regions and cities to Chop station, and also clarified the issues of organizing a political department in regions.
2. Further, comrade Kadar said that the Ministry of Internal Affairs (city of Budapest), where a large number of state security officers are concentrated, created an unhealthy situation, as there are people among the officers who worked in the bodies under Rakosi and played a negative role.
Therefore, he believes that these employees should be immediately removed and placed on another job. In addition, he considers it expedient to disband the security directorate, since these are dishonest people.
I expressed the wish that Comrade Munnich quickly issued an order, as we agreed, on the organization of the people's police and staffed it with the most loyal honest officers, and also issued a “political department” (state security department) that could start work. Then this question will be removed.
At the same time, we agreed with T. Munnich that in the political department of the center there will be no more than 20-25 people of public composition, and the rest of the staff will be held by an unwritten staff.
The political department will include: foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, secret-political service, investigation and special service of operational equipment. Tov. Munnich said that he would sign such an order tomorrow. On the number of people arrested by regions and seized weapons I will convey a separate note.
AP RF. F. 3. Op. 64. D. 487. L. 78–80.
Telephone I.A. Serova and Yu.V. Andropov from Budapest to the Central Committee of the CPSU about sending the arrested Hungarians to the territory of the USSR
Central Committee of the CPSU
Today throughout the day, comrades Kadar and Munnich (each separately) repeatedly called to us, saying that the Soviet military authorities had sent a train of Hungarian youth to the Soviet Union (to Siberia) who had taken part in an armed insurrection.
Kadar and Munnich stated in this connection that they did not approve of such actions on our part, since these actions allegedly caused a general strike of the Hungarian railway workers and worsened the internal political situation in the country as a whole.
Tonight Budapest Radio them. Kossuth transmitted a tendentious report on the removal of Hungarian youth to Siberia. Tov. Munnich requested that the command of the Soviet troops made an official press statement that it did not take out anyone and would not take it out of Hungary to the USSR. On our side, Comrade Munnich was told that we would clarify this question and give him an answer tomorrow.
In fact, today, November 14, a small train with those arrested was sent to Chop Station, and the investigative cases were registered as active participants and organizers of an armed insurrection. Echelon proceeded border.
While moving the train, prisoners at two stations threw notes into the window, telling them that they were being sent to Siberia. These notes were picked up by Hungarian railway workers who reported this to the government. Along our line, we have been instructed to send those arrested in closed vehicles under a reinforced convoy.
Tomorrow, when meeting with m. Munnich, m. Serov has in mind to tell him that due to the absence in Hungary of a prison sufficiently prepared for prisoners to provide an objective investigation, we meant to place a small group of detainees in a room nearby Soviet-Hungarian border. Comrades Suslov and Aristov informed about this.
AP RF. F. 3. Op. 64. D. 486. L. 143–144.
Reference: According to statistics, in connection with the uprising and fighting in the period from October 23 to December 31, 1956, 2652 Hungarian rebels, 348 civilians were killed, and 19,226 people were injured.
The losses of the Soviet army, according to official figures, amounted to 669 people killed, 51 missing and 1251 wounded.
According to official data, the casualties of the Hungarian People’s Army amounted to 53 killed and 289 wounded soldiers.
The total number of lost military equipment is unknown.
2nd GuardsThe MD, the first to enter the rebellious Budapest, on October 24, 1956, lost four tanks.
During the Whirlwind operation, the 33rd MD lost 14 tanks and self-propelled guns, 9 armored personnel carriers, 13 guns, 4 MLRS, 6 anti-aircraft guns and other equipment, as well as 111 military personnel.
According to Hungarian communist sources, after the liquidation of the armed groups, a large number of Western-made weapons fell into the hands of the MVD troops and police: German Thompson German assault rifles.
Budapest suffered as a result of street fighting between the Soviet troops and the rebels, 4,000 houses were completely destroyed in the city and 40,000 more were damaged.
PS: "Totalitarian tankers" and "Liberal Magyars". Hungary. 1956 (memories of our tank crews)
"The Taming of the Shrew".