Typical symptoms of uterine fibroids
Uterine fibroids - one of the most common gynecological diseases, which is diagnosed in every third patient with a pathology of the reproductive system. About what constitutes this disease and what signs are characteristic of it, why it appears and how dangerous it is, we will tell in our article.
Uterine fibroids: the nature of the disease
Uterine fibroids (second name -uterine fibroma) - is a benign tumor formation that appears on the walls of the female genital organ. To understand its nature, you first need to remember the structure of the uterus. Its walls consist of three layers:
- external - perimetry;
- middle - myometrium, which is a muscle tissue;
- internal - endometrium, i.e. the mucous membrane.
Uterine fibroids are formed in the myometrium and can remain there - such a fibroma called interstitial, and today, according to statistics, is the most common.When a tumor grows into the endometrium, doctors call this type of fibroids submucous. If it breaks out into the perimetry, it is called subserous.
Fibromyoma has a heterogeneous structure: it contains cells of muscle and connective tissue. If the former prevail, the doctors call such a tumor a myoma, and when the latter prevail - fibromyoma. Single fibroma is a rather rare case. As a rule, several tumors, called nodules, are detected during diagnosis. This phenomenon in medicine has been called the nodular uterine myoma.
Fibroma of the uterus: dangerous or not?
Since fibroma is a benign tumor, this disease does not pose a particular health hazard. Moreover, physicians assure that fibromyoma does not degenerate into a malignant tumor, and therefore it is not worth expecting any trouble from oncology.
However, it is impossible to call a completely harmless fibroid as:
- there may be cancer cells behind it. In order to detect them in time, you should be examined twice a year by a gynecologist;
- the tumor can press on other organs, disrupting their work and causing pain.That is why patients with a diagnosis of uterine fibroids often experience pain in the bladder and intestines.
Dimensions of uterine fibroidsare different, weight ranges from 1 gram to several kilograms. The largest uterine fibroma, removed by surgeons, weighed 67 kg. It should be noted that usually the tumor develops in women aged 20 to 40 years. Most often, after menopause, fibromyoma decreases in size and even resolves, but there are cases when the tumor begins to grow rapidly.
Causes of Fibromyoma
Regarding the causes of the formation of uterine fibroids, doctors still cannot reach a common opinion. Most doctors consider that the hormone imbalance, namely, the predominance of estrogen over progesterone, is the impetus for the appearance of a fibromous tumor.
Additional factors that make a woman at risk include:
- the presence of abortions in history. Scars that form on the walls of the uterus during curettage can be the basis for the formation of fibroids;
- irregular sexual intercourse or the complete absence of sexual activity. They lead to hormonal imbalance, and he - to fibroids;
- inflammation of the uterus and appendages;
- indiscriminate use of hormone-containing drugs.Allergy drugs, birth control pills, hormonal contraceptives - they should be taken only on the advice of a doctor;
- heredity. If someone of the women in your family was diagnosed with this, with a probability of 40%, the same fate awaits you.
Symptoms of uterine fibroids
Speaking about the external manifestations of fibroma, we immediately want to warn you: you cannot determine its presence by external manifestations yourself. First, for a while, namely until the moment when it begins to put pressure on neighboring organs, it develops asymptomatically. Secondly, its symptoms are similar to many gynecological diseases, and even a doctor cannot identify myoma, relying solely on the history.
But we still list the symptoms, the appearance of which should alert you and make you contact the antenatal clinic:
- pain during menstruation;
- profuse menstruation in which there are blood clots;
- spasmodic abdominal pain;
- bleeding and bleeding between periods;
- painful intercourse;
- increased flatulence;
- abdominal size increase;
- frequent trips to the toilet "for small";
- pulling pain in lumbar region.
In a woman with uterine fibroids, only one of the above symptoms can be observed. Therefore, the doctor will be able to make a conclusion only after vaginal examination and ultrasound of the genital organs.
Uterine fibroids: treatment methods
In a relationshipfibroids of the uterusgynecologists use two types of treatment:
- conservative - the use of drugs;
- operative - surgical intervention.
The conservative method is not able to cure uterine myoma, but only slows its growth and partially reduces its size. It is used for patients up to 40 years with fibromas, whose growth is slow and does not pose a threat to health.
In the course of medical treatment, doctors prescribe hormonal immunomodulatory and anti-anemic drugs, physiotherapy, taking vitamins and diet therapy.
Surgical intervention is necessary in cases where:
- the size of the fibroids exceeds the size of the uterus during pregnancy at 13 weeks;
- the tumor is growing rapidly;
- degenerative changes of fibroids are observed;
- fibroids located on the cervix, etc.
There are several types of operations:
- myomectomy - removal of fibromatous nodes. This operation is performed for women who want to preserve their reproductive function. Unfortunately, in 3 cases out of 10, the disease then recurs. In addition, only 60% of women after myomectomy can conceive a child;
- hysterectomy - removal of uterine fibroids laparoscopically (through the vagina) or with the help of a surgical incision of the abdominal cavity. This type of operation excludes the appearance of tumors in the future, but at the same time deprives a woman of her genital function.
Uterine fibroids - a disease that has not yet been fully studied, and therefore modern medicine has not yet worked out effective preventive measures for it. Doctors advise only to eat right, to move actively, to live sexually on a regular basis, to use contraceptives recommended by the doctor, and at least 2 times a year to come for preventive examinations.
What we may not have told about in our article will be presented by Elena Malysheva in the next issue of the program “To Live is Great”: