What slept in different countries

What slept in different countries

The bed for people who lived in the Stone Age was the land covered with a maximum of animal skins. Only about 5,000 years ago, the Sumerians began to allocate special rooms for sleeping in their dwellings, and even make a bed on a raised platform. The higher from the floor, the less likelihood of being bitten by poisonous reptiles, and even warmer, although the niche itself, similar to a shelf in a second-class carriage, was cold and hard - a stone after all.

For the first time, something similar to the modern bed appeared in the ancient Egyptians. It was a wooden lounger on four legs (as a rule, they were made in the form of animal paws), on which they stretched the net of belts and ropes. Such a gilded shop was found in the funeral furniture of the mother of Pharaoh Cheops Hetepherez I, and also in the tomb of Tutankhamen (XIV century BC). True, they were still far from being comfortable, because instead of pillows they used a headrest made of stone, wood or metal. Yes, and this luxury was available only to the elect.

Ordinary people continued to sleep on bags of hay or loungers of planks and stones.

In ancient Rome, began to make a bed with a back and at the head and legs. She was called "lectus".Pillows and mattresses were stuffed with wool, while the “lectuses” themselves were hung with transparent material to protect against insects (it was this curtain that later turned into a canopy).

Under the hood

Where did our ancestors sleep

Mere mortals in the early Middle Ages did not go far from the Stone Age and still slept where they could: laid carpets on the floor or on a bench against the wall, covered the surface with mattresses stuffed with feathers, wool or hair, covered with cloth, and hides. From insects saved the canopy. The fabric could be light and dense, depending on the climate; the canopy, among other things, sheltered from drafts - they slept in antiquity somewhere naked.

By the 12th century, beds are already becoming similar to what we know today. Although they appear primarily in the same nobility. Wooden, richly decorated with carvings and paintings, as well as semi-precious stones, they also drowned in pillows - a variety of sizes and shapes. The headboard was raised in relation to the footboard. At the same time there are also folding sofas with leather cushions, which were covered with silk on top. In the afternoon such sun loungers were used as a couch. Workers people slept on simple wooden beds from the boards, but the fact is important - the bed went out to the people.

Rus bed

Where did our ancestors sleep

Thanks to the tale of Emel, everyone knows that in Russia they slept on the stove. Whether it was always like this is a moot point. After all, at the dawn of Slavic history in the 8th – 13th centuries, the stove was drowned “in the black way” - there was no chimney, and all the soot and soot was poured directly into the hut, leaving through doors and windows. Whether it was possible to sleep among this fiery hell is difficult to say. But after heating - probably, yes. It is precisely known that on the Russian stove it was perfectly slept from the 15th – 16th centuries, when it already had a chimney. In order to make it easier to climb, steps were made. Not everyone slept on the stove - only older, respected family members.

However, the Slavs (from about the second half of I millennium AD.) Had an alternative - a sidecover, in other words, wooden stove benches mounted under the ceiling next to the stove. Most often, they were fastened to two intersecting walls or between a wall and one of the walls of a Russian stove. At first they were low, half a meter from the floor, then moved upstairs: here it is warmer, and space in the hut is saved. Baby bedding was done with sides so that the kids did not fall down; the babies slept in cradles - wooden cradles, the ropes of which were hung from the ceiling, and in the summer - on a tree.Adult shelves were made without sides and resembled high and wide shelves. Polati were an attribute not only of a peasant house, they could often be found in boyar estates as well.

However, such devices were relevant only in the cold season. In the summer, when the oven was used only for cooking, vegetables and herbs were dried on the beds. People slept on benches or on chests, which not only were large and replaced cabinets, but were specially made with a flat lid. Perhaps the use of the chest as a sunbed not only saved a place in the hut, but also protected the goods stored in it from thieves.

A mattress was used as a mattress - it was made from sackcloth and stuffed with anything, for example, with old rags. Rich people could afford a feather bed - a mattress stuffed with bird down and feathers. The mattress, filled with straw, was called the straw manor, and the sennik was called dried hay or moss. They were sewn from durable canvas fabric so that the hay did not pierce the sleeper. There were other types of mattresses - for example, those that were packed with horsehair or even seaweed. One of the cheapest was a lycra mattress,which was filled with treated bark of willow or linden. However, he had a big drawback: due to the fact that the wood over time dampened, he molded.

Where did our ancestors sleep

Beds as such appeared in Russian peasant houses only in the 19th century, but in the boyar mansions they were recognized even in the times of Peter, in the 17th century. But the habit of sleeping under the ceiling of the Russian people was very tenacious, and therefore well-born dignitaries and wealthy merchants turned their beds into layer cake - with a pile of featherbeds, mattresses and blankets. In order to get to the top, you even had to substitute a small ladder or chair.

Century of gorgeous beds

Where did our ancestors sleep

The century of gorgeous beds is exactly what the 17th century furniture makers have christened. The sleeping facilities were tall and incredibly pompous, with elaborate carvings covered in gold leaf. There is no need to talk about a canopy: heavy brocade or velvet fabrics were abundantly embroidered with gold and silver threads, pearls and precious stones. Often it was made to match the wallpaper on the wall or, on the contrary, contrast fabrics were selected.

On such a bed, it was not a shame for the courtiers to accept that, for example, the French monarch Louis XIV did.Conveniently sitting under a canopy with the inscription "The Triumph of Venus", he even held parliamentary meetings. The princes of blood were sitting at the same time, the courtiers were standing, and the minor officials were kneeling. The custom of lying down was generally in fashion. Women often did not get out of bed at all, receiving close relatives and friends. It remains to add that the sun king slept after all on another bed, probably more modest; however, according to archival sources, he had at least 413 of them — he could afford to choose.

Where did our ancestors sleep

Peter I, too, could have made himself a similar bed, but instead the king-carpenter, who hated all luxury, became the happy owner of a wardrobe-bed. Such built-in beds, similar to a dresser with two doors, were very popular at that time in cold regions of Europe, including Peter Holland, beloved by Peter. Their main charm was that it never blew here. Peter, as usual, tried to introduce this innovation among his subjects, but they didn’t appreciate the effort - the bedroom cabinets did not take root in Russia.

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  • What slept in different countries

    What slept in different countries

    What slept in different countries

    What slept in different countries

    What slept in different countries

    What slept in different countries

    What slept in different countries

    What slept in different countries

    What slept in different countries

    What slept in different countries

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